Microprocessor DMA Controller in Microprocessor – Microprocessor DMA The following image shows the pin diagram of a DMA controller − . Addressing Modes & Interrupts · Microprocessor – Instruction Sets. For this purpose Intel introduced the controller chip which is known as DMA controller. A DMA controller temporarily borrows the address. In computing, a programmable interrupt controller (PIC) is a device that is used to combine several sources of interrupt onto one or more CPU lines, while.
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Documents Flashcards Grammar checker. Its primary interrrupt is to generate, upon a peripheral request, a sequential memory address which will allow the peripheral to read or write data directly to or from memory. Acquisition of the system bus in accomplished via the CPU’s hold function. Interrupt has priority logic that resolves the peripherals requests and issues a composite hold request to the CPU.
It maintains the OMA cycle count for each channel and outputs a control signal Jo notify the peripheral that the programmed number of OMA cycles is complete. Other output control signals simplify sectored data transfers. The represents a significant savings in component count for DMA-based microcomputer systems and greatly simplifies the transfer of data at high speed between peripherals and memories.
Pin Configuration Figure 1. The DMA address register is After being initialized by cobtroller, the can transfer a loaded with the address of the first memory location to be block of data, containing up to 82557 Upon receiving a DMA transfer request from an enabled peripheral, the The value loaded into the low-order bits of the terminal count register specifies the number of 2857 cycles minus one before the Terminal Count TC output is activated.
For instance, a terminal count of 0 would 1. Acquires control of the system bus. Acknowledges that requesting peripheral which is connected to the highest priority channel.
The most significant two bits of the terminal count register specify the type of DMA operation 3. Outputs the least significant eight bits of the memory address onto system address lines 82577. The will retain control of the system bus and repeat the transfer sequence, as long as a peripheral maintains its DMA request. The peripheral can use these acknowledge signals to enable conttroller internal access of each byte of a data block in order to execute some verification procedure, such as the accumulation of a CRC Cyclic Redundancy Code checkword.
These are individual asynchronous chan nel request inputs used by the peripherals to obtain a DMA cycle. A request can be generated by raising the request line and holding it high until DMA acknowledge. An active low niterrupt on the acknowl edge output informs the peripheral connected to that channel that it has been selected for a DMA cycle.
This line goes active low and inactive high once for each byte transferred even if a burst of data is being transferred. Data Bus Buffer This three-state, bi-directional, eight bit buffer interfaces the to the system data bus. These are bi-directional three-state lines. When the is being programmed by the CPU.
During DMA cycles when the is the bus masterthe will output the most significant eight-bits of the memory address from one of the DMA address registers to the latch via the data bus. These address bits will be transferred at the beginning of the DMA cycle: These least significant four address lines are bi-directional.
In the “slave” mode they are inputs which select one of the registers to be read or programmed. In the “master” mode, they are outputs which constitute the least significant four bits of the bit memory address generated by the In the “master” mode.
STUDY LIKE A PRO: DMA Controller – Intel /
CS is automatically disabled to prevent the chip from data link with the peripheral that has been granted the selecting itself while performing the DMA function. An active-low, bi-directional three-state line.
An asynchronous input generally from an Figure 5. These four address lines are three-state outputs which constitute bits 4 through 7 of the bit memory address generated by the during all OMA cycles. This asynchronous input is used to elongate the memory read and write cycles in the with wait states if the selected memory requires longer cycles.
READY must conform to specified setup and hold times. This output notifies the currently selected peripheral that the present DMA cycle should be the last cycle for this data block. TC is activated when the bit value in the selected channel’s terminal count register equals zero.
Recall that the loworder bits of the terminal count register should be loaded with the values n MARK always occurs at and all multiples of cycles from the end of the data block. Only if the total number of DMA cycles n is evenly divisable by and the terminal count register was loaded with n This input from the CPU indicates the data block.
This output requests control of the system bus. HRQ must conform to specified setup and hold times. This active-low three-state output is used to read data from the addressed memory location during DMA Read cycles. This output strobes the most significant byte of the memory address into the device from the data bus.
Mode Sat Register When set, the various bits in the Mode Set register enable each of the four DMA channels, and allow four different options for the There is no overhead penalty associated with this mode of opera tion.
Data transfers within micro computer systems proceed asynchronously to allow count register s are initialized. If a device cannot be accessed inhibiting all channels, and preventing bus conflicts on within a specific amount of time it returns a “not ready” power-up.
A channel should not be left enabled unless its indication to the that causes the to insert one or DMA address and terminal count registers contain valid values; otherwise, an inadvertent DMA request DROn from a peripheral could initiate a DMA cycle that would are fast enough to be accessed without the use of wait destroy memory data.
The various options which can be enabled by bits in the Mode Set register are explained below: After each DMA cycle, the and prevents the unnecessary occurrence of wait states in priority of each channel changes. The channel which had the The enable bit for that channel must be re-programmed to continue or begin another DMA operation. In this case, it is generally the responsibility of the peripheral to cease DMA requests in order to terminate a DMA operation.
In the fixed priority mode. Channel 0 has the highest priority and Channel 3 has the lowest priority. Each channel moves up to the next highest priority assignment, while the channel which has just been serviced moves to the lowest priority assignment: Auto Load Bit 7 The Auto Load mode permits Channel 2 to be used for repeat block or block chaining operations, without immediate software intervention between blocks.
Chan nel 2 registers are initialized as usual for the first data block; Channel 3 registers, however, are used to store the block re-initialization parameters DMA starting address, terminal count and DMA transfer mode. After the first block of DMA cycles is executed by Channel 2 i. This permits repeat block operations to be set up with the programming of a single channel.
Repeat block operations can be used in applications such as CRT refreshing. Channels 2 and 3 can still be loaded with separate values if Channel 2 is loaded before loading Channel 3. Note that in the Auto Load mode, Channel 3 is still available to the user if the Channel 3 enable bit is set.
All that is necessary to use the Auto Load feature for chaining operations is to reload Channel 3 registers at the conclusion of each update cycle with the new parameters for the next data block transfer. Unless the DMA channels are inhibited a channel could reach ter be safely loaded into Channel 3. Status Register The eight-bit status register indicates which channels have reached a terminal count condition and includes the before reading the TC status.
This will be the first DMA cycle of the new data block for Channel 2. The update flag is cleared at the conclusion of this DMA cycle. I output is activated for that channel. These bits remain set until the status register is read or the is reset.
Microprocessor – 8257 DMA Controller
The Channel Register also includes two “general registers”: Because the “channel registers” are address on the system address bus, and either outputs the bits, two program instruction cycles are required to load data to be written onto the system data bus or accepts the or read an entire register.
Address bit 3 specifies whether a register always being accessed first. In systems utilizing an interrupt structure, interrupts should be disabled prior to any paired programming operations to prevent an interrupt from splitting them. The result of such a split The least significant three address bits, Ao-A: When accessing the Mode Set or Status register.
Programmable interrupt controller
A rA2 are all zero. Terminal Count value N Consecutive Transfers If more than one channel requests service simultaneous ly, the transfer will occur in the same way a burst does. In each S4 the DRO lines are sampled and the highest priority request is recognized during the next transfer. A burst mode transfer in a lower priority channel will be overridden by a higher priority request.
If it is not active, the completes the current transfer, releases the HRQ line LOW and returns to the idle state. The Ready line is sampled in State 3. Ready is sampled dur ing every wait state. No cycles are lost in the master to master transfer maximizing bus efficiency. A 2MHz clock input will Figure 8. The now waits ocntroller a Contgoller is received insuring that the system bus is free for its use. This configuration permits use of the ‘s considerably larger lnterrupt of memory instructions when reading or loading the s interrupg.
Specifications are signals that follow similar paths through the silicon die. The propagation speed of these signals varies in the manufacturing process but the relationship between all these parameters is constant. The variation is less interrult or equal to 50 ns. Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device.
Exposure to absolute maximum With Respect to Ground Unit Tcv Cycle Time Period 0. Unit ns measured at 3.