written c by Fernand Martines. The manuscript, dating from the last quarter of the 15th century, contains beautiful miniatures. Libro del. These motifs are united in the Arthurian “Lady of the Lake”, and here find expression in Zifar in the episode of the Caballero Atrevido (González, Zifar – ). View Libro del caballero Zifar Research Papers on for free.

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Another way to link the prologue to the adventures of Zifar is to look at both of them of examples of translation: Here we can read Syriac as Arabic, for the two were often seen as interchangeable at the time.

Most agree that it was not itself a translation from Arabic, but was written in Castilian. If the work is not a translation from Arabic, why does the author use so many proper nouns and place names that appear to have been adapted from or invented in imitation of Arabic? Why the performance of translation? In short, relics and texts were arms and currency in a pan-Mediterranean struggle for military, spiritual, and economic supremacy between Latin Christendom and Islam.

Libro del cavallero Zifar

Many popular narratives of the time respond to this struggle. The cabllero of Arthurian tradition, so popular throughout Western Europe at the time, were the fictional avatars of the Crusading orders. In one important strain of that tradition, the quest is to recuperate a sacred relic from the East, namely the Holy Grail.


This tale type has become central to Western Narrative: Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. However, this being Castile, the East is also the West.

Book of the Knight Zifar – Wikipedia

Arabic had a completely different meaning and value in Castile in than it would in, for example, Canterbury. Castilian kings and nobles, having vanquished their Andalusi neighbors to the south, were zifwr consumers the material and intellectual culture of Andalusi subjects, and conspicuous consumption of the prestigious Andalusi textiles, architecture, and information technology was the norm.

In their eyes, they were the Blue Bloods, and the Castilians were the arrivistes. These Mozarabs of Toledo were mostly culturally assimilated to the Castilian mainstream caballeri the mid-thirteenth century. They practiced the Roman and no longer the Mozarabic rite, and were Castlilian speakers.

Libro del cavallero Zifar – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

However, they continued to use Arabic as a notarial language well into the fourteenth century, and Arabic was very much a part of their cultural history, and their group identity. They were often subordinated to bishops from places like Caballfro and Italy sent to Toledo by the Pope with the consent of the King. The French order of Cluniac monks, very influential in Castile, represented an additional threat to Mozarabic power in the region.

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The Mozarabic legacy was under siege. All of these aspects of the struggle for the Mediterranean come together in the Libro del caballero Zifar: The lives of Eastern Saints, the stories of the Western knights errant whose mission is to restore the relics of said saints to the West, the dream of a Christian East promised to the Crusaders and of a Christian West promised by the Castilians, and the struggle of the last Arab Christian community of the Caballfro to maintain their cabalkero in the former Capital of Visigothic Hispania.

This post was written in conjunction with a paper for the Modern Language Association Convention in Chicago.

Translation of Remains and of Texts: Your email address will not be published. Notify me of followup comments via e-mail.

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