Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD). ENMOD. Entry into force: 5 October. ENMOD Review Conference – Preparatory Committee () . #Gambia ratifies the Cluster Munitions Convention, bringing the number of states parties to The Convention defines environmental modification techniques as changing — through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes — the dynamics.
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At the very last, we need to thoroughly canvass what measures might be taken to that end.
Thirty-first session, Supplement No. For those States whose instruments of ratification or accession are deposited after the entry into force of this Convention, it shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of their instruments of ratification or accession. The Depositary or his representative shall serve as the Chairman of the Committee.
Annex to the Convention Consultative Committee of Experts 1. The European duo proposal that a specific reference to the use of herbicides which from had been acknowledged by the US as a potential ENMOD violation would be a positive step.
It also provides that at intervals of not less than five years thereafter, a majority of the States Parties to the Convention may obtain, by submitting a proposal enmof this effect to the Depositary, the convening of a conference with the same objectives, and that if no conference has been convened within ten years following the conclusion of a previous conference, the Depositary shall solicit the views of all States Parties to the Convention, concerning the convening of such a conference.
There shall be no snmod on matters of substance.
Secretary-General of the United Nations. The final text on Article II in the Final Declaration, containing the expression “any” hostile use as well as “any” environmental modification technique was meant to solve the controversy once for all.
The Convention on Biological Diversity of would also ban some forms of weather modification or geoengineering. This page was last edited on 28 Januaryat This Convention shall be open to all States for signature. Thirty-first session, Supplement No. Environmental Modification Technique includes any technique for changing — through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes — the dynamics, composition or structure of the earth, including its biota, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, or of outer space.
In JulyUSA and USSR agreed to hold bilateral discussions on measures to overcome the danger of the use of environmental modification techniques for military purposes and three subsequent rounds of discussions in and Five years after the entry into force of this Convention, a conference of the States Parties to the Convention shall be convened by the Depositary at Geneva, Switzerland.
COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake | Grip
Peace and War at Stake. Article 8 of the Convention also provides the convening of conferences to review the operation of the Convention, at intervals of not less than five years.
Any State Party to this Convention may propose amendments to the Convention. This Convention shall be subject to ratification by signatory States. The States Parties to emnod Convention undertake to facilitate, and have the right to participate in, the conventionn possible exchange of scientific and technological information on the use of environmental modification techniques for peaceful purposes.
The first Review Conference took place in Geneva in September Use dmy dates cknvention July All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from January Articles with permanently dead external links. In its Article I the Convention, which is part of disarmament efforts, prohibits the Contracting Parties from engaging in “military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to any other State Party”.
Yet ENMOD suffers from several loopholes which could not be filled by the first two review conferences, despite the insistence of several states, particularly Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands.
Following the US decision of July to renounce the use of climate modification techniques for hostile purposes, the resolution by the US Senate calling for an international agreement “prohibiting the use of any environmental or geophysical modification activity as a weapon of war”, and an in-depth review by the Department of Defense of the military aspects of weather and other environmental modification techniques, US decided to seek agreement with the Soviet Union to explore the possibilities of an international agreement.
Most problematic is the lack of agreement on what constitutes a ‘deliberate manipulation of a natural process’ Article II.
COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake
An amendment shall enter into force for all States Parties to this Convention which have accepted it, upon the deposit with the Depositary of instruments of acceptance by a majority of States Parties. The Depositary shall take immediate steps to convene such a conference if one third or ten of the States Parties, whichever number is less, respond affirmatively.
Only one State, Uruguay, expressed support for convening a new review conference, while two, USA and UK, stated that they see no need for such a conference The Conference declared that environmental modification research, as well as its use, ” should be dedicated solely to peaceful ends. States parties undertake not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to another State party article I.
At the end of the Gulf War, the Security Council, established liability for the environmental damages caused by Iraq as a condition to the cessation of hostilities Resolution of April 3, Inat the 6th Committee of the UN General Assembly, when addressing the environmental devastation produced by Iraq in Kuwait, some countries had specifically referred to ENMOD’s applicability to those events.
My purpose here is not to show why the rampant militarization of our planet is a major cause of deterioration of our ecosystems.