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The process includes registering the images and smoothing them to a common point spread function PSF. Detections in CO are shown as circles filled: Even in the stack, the red itam lead to a non-detection of the CO line, thus setting an even more restrictive upper limit on the molecular gas mass fraction of 0. Observations were carried out in fixed observing blocks and as poor-weather back-ups for higher-frequency programmes.
Intriguingly, atomic gas dominates in the minority of galaxies that are above threshold and that have a significant cold gas content. Furthermore, it has since been shown that the mass—metallicity relation is even more fundamental Tremonti et al.
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This sample therefore provides us with a complete picture of how the jram atomic gas relates to other properties such as stellar mass, luminosity, stellar surface mass density or colour. The overall CO detection rate is 54 per cent, but our survey also uncovers the existence of sharp thresholds in galaxy structural parameters such as stellar mass surface density and concentration index, below which all galaxies have a measurable iramm gas component but above which the detection rate of the CO line drops suddenly.
Table 2 is published in its entirety in the electronic version of the journal see Supporting Information. In short, the galaxies observed as a part of GASS are selected at random out of a larger parent sample of galaxies that meet the following criteria.
Table 1 is published in its entirety in the electronic version of the journal see Supporting Information. The average molecular-to-atomic hydrogen ratio in present-day galaxies is 0.
This work is based on observations carried out with the IRAM m telescope. As described in Section 4. We find that a 2-arcsec positional error generates a 2. The red circles and green squares include both detections and non-detections, but differ in the way the latter are treated.
However, they found that is a strong function of Hubble type see also Young et al. There are four general irzm on the data if the derived scaling laws are to be reliable: For the non-detection, an upper limit for the flux of see equation 5 is set.
The actual situation is, however, quite different, as seen in Fig. We will also look more closely at the relationship between molecular gas content and star formation. For any subsample of N galaxies with CO non-detection, we calculate a mean stacked spectrum: We see no evidence 359 such systems in our sample. For example, in the redshift range 0. Data reduction includes Hanning smoothing, bandpass subtraction, radio frequency interference RFI excision, flux calibration and weighted combination of individual spectra.
The sample is selected purely according to stellar mass, and therefore provides an unbiased view of molecular gas in these systems.
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However, such a prescription has yet to be observationally or theoretically validated. All scans are visually examined, and those with distorted baselines, increased noise due to poor atmospheric conditions, or anomalous features are discarded.
One possible interpretation is that the re-accretion of gas may still be possible following the quenching event. Latest Most Read Most Cited Relaxation by thermal conduction of a magnetically confined mountain on an accreting neutron star. With a single tuning of the receiver at a frequency of When multiple measurements are found for the same galaxy, the newest is assumed to supersede previous values.
The grey shaded region shows the overall detection rate of One result that we wish to highlight is the existence of sharp thresholds in galaxy structural parameters such as stellar surface mass density, below which most galaxies have measurable atomic and molecular gas components, but above which the detection rate of both the H i and CO lines drops drastically.
We thank the anonymous referee for a constructive and helpful report. Nevertheless, most of the samples did not meet all of the criteria listed above that would allow for accurate scaling laws to be derived; some samples were biased towards a particular galaxy type e. A portion is shown here as an example of its format and contents. No other selection criteria on colour, morphology or spectral properties for example were applied. In future work, we plan to look more carefully at these issues.